Langland’s Conception of Favel Guile, Guile, Liar, and False in the First Vision of Piers Plowman.
Corrects MED definition of Favel: Favel is cunning as distinguished from duplicity and not united with it. To Aquinas, cunning (astutia) is a sin of feigned or specious means (ST 2a2ae55.3). Guile, which WL defines with increased precision in successive versions of PPl, has a role subordinate to Favel, in seeing that the schemes of Favel are carried out; this parallels Aquinas’s distinction of astutia and dolus (ST 2a2ae55.4). Lying, the intention to express falsehood, is distinguished by Aquinas and WL from duplicity, which has the intention to deceive.
Neophil 71 (1987): 626-33.