Langland’s Conception of Favel Guile, Guile, Liar, and False in the First Vision of Piers Plowman.
Corrects MED definition of Favel: Favel is cunning as distinguished from duplicity and not united with it. To Aquinas, cunning (astutia) is a sin of feigned or specious means (ST 2a2ae55.3). Guile, which WL defines with increased precision in successive versions of PPl, has a role subordinate to Favel, in seeing that the schemes of Favel are carried out; this parallels Aquinas’s distinction of astutia and dolus (ST 2a2ae55.4). Lying, the intention to express falsehood, is distinguished by Aquinas and WL from duplicity, which has the intention to deceive.