Treasonous Criticisms of Henry IV: The Loyal Poet of Richard the Redeless and Mum and the Sothsegger.
Mum is a later composition by the author of RR, not a continuation, which shows the poet’s marked change in attitude toward Henry TV. He remains Henry’s loyal supporter, but recognizes the king’s dangerous shortcomings. Much like Richard in RR, Henry has betrayed his people’s trust by not reducing burdensome taxes, by allowing legal abuses to remain unchecked, and by choosing evil counsellors. The poet’s criticisms recall the charges against Henry leveled by the Percys to justify their rebellion, but the poet is careful to place primary responsibility on Henry’s ministers, not the king himself.