A fre liberal wille’: Charity in Piers Plowman
The plan of salvation in PPl follows Bernard of Clairvaux’s model: the existence of a free will, and the efficient condition of God conferring grace upon a consenting will. The two inner dreams clearly present these two stages. The first (B.11.5-404) deals with the discovery of the will’s freedom and the second (B.16.20-166) with the will’s reception of grace.
Andrew Lynch and Philippa Maddern, eds. Venus & Mars: Engendering Love and War in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Nedlands, Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 1995. 34-46.